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A petroleum geologist's guide to seismic reflection William Ashcroft

By: Ashcroft, William.
Publisher: Hoboken, NJ Wiley 2011Description: ix, 156 p. il., figras. 27 cm. 1 CD ROM.ISBN: 9781444332636.Subject(s): Método de reflexión sísmica | Petroleo -- ProspecciónDDC classification: 622.1828 As34
Partial contents:
Basic topics and "D interpretation. - - Geophysical signal description. - - Seismic wave propagation. - - Seismic input to reservoir characterization. - - Modifying the seismic waveform. - - Seismic input to mapping reservoir properties.
Summary: It is a development of material given to students on the MSc course in Petroleum Geology at Aberdeen University and takes the form of a course manual rather than a systematic textbook.Summary: The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress.
List(s) this item appears in: Ingeniería de Petróleos
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Colección general 622.1828 As34 2011 1 Available
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Enhanced descriptions from Syndetics:

This book is written for advanced earth science students, geologists, petroleum engineers and others who want to get quickly up to speed on the interpretation of reflection seismic data. It is a development of material given to students on the MSc course in Petroleum Geology at Aberdeen University and takes the form of a course manual rather than a systematic textbook. It can be used as a self-contained course for individual study, or as the basis for a class programme.

The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress. Some tutorials may only involve drawing simple diagrams, but many are computer-aided (PC based) with graphics output to give insight into key steps in seismic data processing or into the seismic response of some common geological scenarios. Part I of the book covers basic ideas and it ends with two tutorials in 2-D structural interpretation. Part II concentrates on the current seismic reflection contribution to reservoir studies, based on 3-D data.

Includes index

Basic topics and "D interpretation. - - Geophysical signal description. - - Seismic wave propagation. - - Seismic input to reservoir characterization. - - Modifying the seismic waveform. - - Seismic input to mapping reservoir properties.

It is a development of material given to students on the MSc course in Petroleum Geology at Aberdeen University and takes the form of a course manual rather than a systematic textbook.

The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress.

Table of contents provided by Syndetics

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Part I Basic Topics and 2-D Interpretation
  • 1 Introduction and overview
  • 1.1 Exploration geophysics in petroleum exploration
  • 1.2 The principle of seismic reflection surveying
  • 1.3 Overview of the seismic reflection industry
  • 1.4 Brief history of seismic surveying
  • 1.5 Societies, books and journals
  • 2 Geophysical Signal Description
  • 2.1 Overview
  • 2.3 Cosine waves
  • 2.3 Signals and spectra
  • 2.4 Periodic waveforms: Fourier series
  • 2.5 Seismic wavelets
  • 2.6 Wavelet characteristics: time and frequency domains
  • 2.7 Digitization of signals
  • 2.8 Fourier description of space-dependent quantities
  • Tutorial 2.1 Consolidating ideas of frequency and phase shift
  • Tutorial 2.2 Fourier summation of a periodic waveform
  • Tutorial 2.3 The transition from periodic waveform to wavelet: program FOURSYN
  • Tutorial 2.4 Amplitude and phase-shift changes in the wavelet: program FOURSYN
  • 3 Data acquisition
  • 3.1 General points
  • 3.2 Seismic sources and receivers
  • 3.3 Static corrections
  • 3.4 Recording and presentation of data
  • 3.5 Common mid-point (CMP) shooting
  • 3.6 The attack on noise
  • 3.7 3-D surveys
  • 4 Seismic wave propagation
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 P-wave
  • 4.3 Controls on P-wave velocity
  • 4.4 P-wave waveforms
  • 4.5 Shear waves and surface waves
  • 4.6 P-wave attenuation
  • 4.7 P-wave transmission paths
  • Tutorial 4.1 P- and S-wave particle motion on screen: program PSWAVE
  • Tutorial 4.2 Basic measurements of time, velocity and depth
  • Tutorial 4.3 Drawing the reflection wavefront from Huyghen's principle
  • Tutorial 4.4 Calculating typical reflection coefficients from well data
  • 5 The process of reflection
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Fresnel zones
  • 5.3 Fresnel zones and the seismic reflector
  • 5.4 Faults and diffractions
  • 5.5 Hyperbolae on stacked time sections
  • 5.6 The reflection as a summation of hyperbolae
  • 5.7 Resolution of the seismic reflection method
  • 5.8 Multiple reflections: common modes
  • 5.9 Multiples: the scale of the problem
  • Tutorial 5.1 Seismic expression of a "point" reflector
  • Tutorial 5.2 Water-layer multiples spoil a deep reservoir interval: program CMPGATHER
  • 6 Velocity analysis, CMP stacking and post-stack migration
  • 6.1 General points
  • 6.2 Definitions of seismic velocity: well data
  • 6.3 Velocities from seismic data: Vrms
  • 6.4 Velocities from seismic data: Vstack
  • 6.5 Velocity analysis
  • 6.6 Errors in seismic-derived velocities
  • 6.7 Multiple suppression by CMP stacking
  • 6.8 Stacking the whole section: a make-or-break process
  • 6.9 Some stacking refinements
  • 6.10 Migration: the fundamental idea
  • 6.11 Full-waveform migration
  • 6.12 Migration example: 2-D section
  • Tutorial 6.1 Velocities from well data
  • Tutorial 6.2 NMO correction, CMP stacking and velocity analysis: program NMOSTAK
  • Tutorial 6.3 Picking stacking velocities from a velocity spectrum: programs VELSPEC and SEGY2D
  • Tutorial 6.4 Suppression of multiples by CMP stacking: program NMOSTAK
  • Tutorial 6.5 How multiples appear on a velocity spectrum: program VELSPEC
  • Tutorial 6.6 Migration by ray-tracing
  • 7 Interpretation of two-dimensional (2-D) surveys for structure
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Linking well geology to seismic section
  • 7.3 Choosing reflections to pick
  • 7.4 Picking reflections
  • 7.5 Sideswipe
  • 7.6 A sideswipe example: fault diffractions
  • 7.7 Preparing structure maps in TWT
  • 7.8 Time to depth conversion
  • 7.9 Examples of time-depth conversion
  • Tutorial 7.1 Constructing a synthetic seismogram from well-log data: program SYNTH
  • Tutorial 7.2 Matching a synthetic seismogram to seismic data: program IMAGES
  • Tutorial 7.3 Picking reflections along a 2-D section from the Moray Firth, Northern North Sea basin
  • Tutorial 7.4 Time to depth conversion, West Sole Field, Southern North Sea Basin
  • Part II Seismic Input To Reservoir Characterisation
  • 8 Better subsurface imaging
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Reflection point dispersal, conflicting dips and DMO
  • 8.3 Prestack time migration (PSTM)
  • 8.4 Prestack depth migration (PSDM)
  • 8.5 Anisotropy: the ultimate refinement in velocity
  • 8.6 Velocity-depth ambiguity
  • 8.7 Future migration technique: Kirchhoff or wave extrapolation?
  • 8.8 3D migration
  • 8.9 3D seismic interpretation
  • 8.10 Growth and impact of 3D surveys
  • Tutorial 8.1 Reflection point dispersal
  • Tutorial 8.2 Lateral mis-location from time migration
  • Tutorial 8.3 3D data: vertical section and time-slice
  • 9 Modifying the seismic waveform
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Testing an electronic filter: the impulse response
  • 9.3 Digital filters: convolution
  • 9.4 Cross-correlation and auto-correlation
  • 9.5 Frequency filtering by convolution
  • 9.6 The seismogram as a convolution
  • 9.7 Deconvolution
  • 9.8 Designing deconvolution operators
  • 9.9 Predictive deconvolution
  • 9.10 Wavelet processing
  • 9.11 Frequency-domain processing
  • 9.12 Data processing and the fragility of bandwidth
  • Tutorial 9.1 Digital filtering by hand
  • Tutorial 9.2 The power of the vibroseis technique: program SIGPROC
  • Tutorial 9.3 Testing the seismic response of a geological model: program SYNTH
  • 10 Refining reservoir environment and structure
  • 10.1 Introduction: the reservoir model
  • 10.2 Refining reservoir environment: seismic stratigraphy and facies analysis
  • 10.3 Refining reservoir structure: vertical seismic profiling (VSP)
  • 10.4 Refining reservoir structure: seismic attributes
  • 10.5 Seismic forward modelling
  • Tutorial 10.1 Section limits in walkaway VSP
  • Tutorial 10.2 Forward modelling of fault shadow: program SYNTHSEC
  • 11 Seismic input to mapping reservoir properties
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Reflection amplitude
  • 11.3 Acoustic impedance (AI) inversion
  • 11.4 Amplitude variation with offset (AVO)
  • 11.5 AVO intercept and gradient
  • 11.6 Fluid Factor
  • 11.7 AVO inversion to rock properties
  • 11.8 AVO inversion to P- and S-wave impedance
  • 11.9 Elastic impedance: AVO made easy?
  • 11.10 Best fluid indicator?
  • 11.11 Instantaneous seismic attributes
  • 11.12 Usage of seismic attributes
  • 11.13 Predicting log properties from seismic attributes
  • 11.14 4C and 4D surveys
  • Tutorial 11.1 AVO for typical lithological interfaces
  • Tutorial Answers
  • References
  • Index

Author notes provided by Syndetics

After gaining his geology degree, Dr Ashcroft worked with Seismograph Service Ltd on seismic parties in the Middle East and Nigeria,  then went on to do research at Birmingham University. He  joined the Department of Geology, University of Aberdeen in 1966, teaching Applied Geophysics to BSc students and to the MSc class in Petroleum Geology.  His research interests included large-scale magnetic surveys in the Scottish highlands and studies based on seismic data released from the petroleum industry.  He retired as Senior Lecturer in 1999, but has remained active, teaching geophysics at the University of Glasgow and carrying out magnetic surveys over the Rhynie Basin as well as writing this book and developing its tutorial software.

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